Basketball Backcourt Violation Analysis

The Basketball Over & Back Violation Statistics & Rules

by BGA Juan José Diaz
August 06, 2013

"... Let me understand: once a team gets possession of the ball, it has 8/10 seconds to get the ball across the half-court line into its forecourt. Once across this line (all three points - the ball and both feet), they may not pass or dribble the ball back across this line, or step on the line (while having possession) or the "over and back" violation occurs. The offense may retrieve the ball without penalty if deflected across by a defensive player.
That's correct ?

And another case... Out-of-bounds from player's offensive end of the court:
1 - can the ball touch the frontcourt before entering the backcourt towards the receiving player ?
2 - or must the ball be thrown directly to the player in the backcourt ? ..."

The Basketball Over-and-Back Violation is a violation that occurs when the offensive team has brought the ball into the frontcourt, returns the ball into the backcourt once it has positioned itself in the front court: the offensive team crosses the half court line and then crosses back into the back court.

As soon as a player from that team touches it in the backcourt, the ball is dead and is awarded to the opposing team for a throw-in.

American Rule: "Both feet and the ball" - if you are progressing from backcourt ( which includes the centre line ), you retain back court status until all three "points" are in the front court. ( This affects the over-and-back rule as well as the 8/10 second rule. )

European Rule: In FIBA, if you are touching the front court, you have front court status, but it is also possible to be simultaneously in both courts ( which is usually a problem if you have the ball ).

I believe, because of the question, that you are talking about USA rules.
Now, in both USA and International Rules ( FIBA ), a backcourt violation happens when, simply but correct, all three of the next statements are met in succession:

1- Team A has team control of the ball
2- Team A is the last to touch the ball in the front court
3- Team A is the first to touch the ball in the back court

In USA rules the player is allowed to pass the ball into the back court on a throw in, because according to those rules, there is no team control in a throw in.

Therefore the first criteria is not met so where the ball touches before the receiver catches it is not important.

In International Rules, teams do have team control when they have the ball for a throw in. Therefore the player is not allowed to pass the ball to the back court on a front court throw-in.


1.1) A player is dribbling the ball in his backcourt . While continuing to dribble, the player steps with one foot into the front court.

Question: Has the 8/10 second count ended?
Answer: Yes. The player has a front court status.

Q: Has the player committed an "Over-and-Back" violation ?
A: Not yet.

1.2) Continuing the above example, the player lifts the foot in the front court and resumes dribbling entirely in the back court.

Q: Has the player committed an "Over-and-Back" violation?
A: Yes. Once a player progressing from the back court to the front court touches the front court with a foot or the ball, he must proceed into the front court with his next maneuver.

(Note: The action described above is legal in US rules. However, the 8/10 second count would still be proceeding.)

2.1) A player, whose team has the ball in the back court, receives a pass with one foot on either side of the centre line. He stands there for a few seconds (and does not pivot).

Q: Has the player committed an "Over-and-Back" violation ?
A: Not yet.

2.2) Continuing the above example, the player passes the ball to a teammate in the
a.-) front court, or b.-) backcourt. The receiving player touches the ball.

Q: Has the player committed an "Over-and-Back" violation ?
A: No in a.-), Yes in b.-).

2.3) Instead of passing, as in 2.2), the player chooses to dribble towards the front court.

Q: Has the player committed an "Over-and-Back" violation ?
A: No. As long as the player is progressing forward, the intent of the rule is being upheld.

3.0) A player holds the ball in the front court near the centre line. He
1) puts down a dribble, with the ball touching the centre line; or
2) steps partially on the centre line with one foot; or
3) brushes the ball against a teammate who is standing in the back court.

Q: Has the player committed an "Over-and-Back" violation ?
A: Yes in all cases.
In 3.1), it is not a violation until the ball rebounds into the player's hand (or a teammate, for that matter). On a dribble, that will happen pretty quickly.
In 3.2) and 3.3), the violation is called immediately. The centre line is considered to be part of the back court. (This case is the same in both FIBA and US rules.)

eBA Statistical Tracking= Finally, in all the cases, the eBA Basketball Statistics Analysis System records an Unforced Turnover, unless there is an opponent player influence – a close defense on the center line, by example – in this case a Forced Turnover is recorded.

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Spanish ~ Español - Análisis de la Violación de Pista Trasera en Baloncesto

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Created by admin. Last Modification: Tuesday 06 of August, 2013 14:37:34 UTC by admin. (Version 3)

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