Basketball Field Goals Tracking

About Field Goals Statistical Tracking

by Prof. Roberto Azar - March 22, 2012

- A field goal attempt (FGA) is charged to a player any time he shoots, throws or taps a live ball at his opponent's basket in an attempt to score a goal, and the goal is missed or is not counted.

eBA Statistical Tracking:

FGA for the shooter and the following action

- A field goal attempt (FGA) is not charged to the shooter if the shot is nullified because of illegal interference with the ball (goal tending) by an offensive player.

eBA Statistical Tracking:

Unforced TO against the player committing the violation

- A field goal made (FGM) is credited to a player any time a FGA by him results in a goal being scored or being awarded because of illegal interference with the ball (goal tending) by a defensive player.

eBA Statistical Tracking:

FGM for the scorer  without statistic register of the goaltending

The illegal interference with the ball is registered only in the play-by-play game's relate.

- When a player or any of his teammates is fouled in  his act of shooting and the shot results in a FGM, then a FGA must also be credited.

eBA Statistical Tracking:
FGA, Received Foul on Shooting and FGM for the shooter, Made Foul on Shooting, Bonus Free Throw and the following action

- A FGA is not charged if the player is shooting the ball, when a teammate commits a violation or foul just prior to the ball being released. The official will call the violation or foul and signal that the score or play following the call is cancelled. This indicates that the ball was not released for the shot prior to the infringement so no FG is attempted.

eBA Statistical Tracking:
TO or Foul Made on Offense against the player committing that infringement

- When a violation or foul is committed by the shooter or a player from one of two teams, after the ball has been released for a shot, a FGA is credited because the shot would count if successful.

eBA Statistical Tracking:
FGA for the shooter and the following action

- Only if an offensive player invalidates the shot because of illegal interference with the ball ( goal tending ) no FGA is registered.

eBA Statistical Tracking:
Unforced TO against the player committing the violation

- When the defensive team is in the "penalty team foul" situation and a defensive player fouls and offensive player trying a 2-point field goal the game analyst must determine by means the video analysis of the game, if the ball was in flight or no  before the foul is committed. If the foul occurs before the shot no FGA is awarded to the offensive player.

eBA Statistical Tracking:
Received Foul for the shooter, Made Foul, 2 Free Throw "on bonus" and the following action

- Likewise if the offensive player was trying a 3-point field goal before being fouled but is awarded only two free throws, that's means that the foul was clearly after the shot.

eBA Statistical Tracking:
FGA, Received Foul, Turnover on Made Foul, 2 Free Throw "on bonus" and the following action

- When a field goal is the result of a defensive player unintentionally scoring in his team's own basket, the score and an FGA will be registered in favor of the captain of the opponent team.

eBA Statistical Tracking:
Unforced TO against the defensive player, FGA and FGM in favor of the captain of the opponent team

- A tap (also called put-back) by an offensive player counts as a FGA and an offensive rebound, if the player had sufficient control of the tap. If the score is made, then the control is accepted.

eBA Statistical Tracking:
FGA for the first shooter, Offensive Rebound in category "T" (Tip o tap), FGA  "T", FGM "after rebound" if the score is made and the following action

About the Blocked Shots:

The blocked shots as the fact of whether a pass or shot is being attempted, are areas of difficulty for the statistician.
The blocked shots are considered as attempts in the eBA Basketball Statistics Analysis System only if the offensive player was in the act of shooting before the ball was blocked. If there is a doubt as to whether the player was intending to shoot, the eBA System shall be that he was not intending a shot. For the overall function of the statistics analysis, the act of shooting is defined as an upward and/or forth motion toward the basket with the purpose of trying for a goal.

Commentary: It's a pass or a shot ?

Another area of discussion that might issue for the statistician is the question of whether a basketball (external link) pass or shot is being attempted. An offensive player often acts as if to shoot only to pass off to a another player on the same team at the last moment. The alley-oop is the most probably to be marked by controversy, particularly if the player designated to be on the receiving end of the pass makes no attempt to catch and shoot the ball. In this case an UNFORCED TURNOVER must be awarded against the passer instead of a FGA.

Two examples to resume this topic:

1.- A1 shoots but fouls B1 (a) before the ball is in flight or (b) after the ball was in flight.

case a ) The ball was dead before it was in flight, so charge A1 with an UNFORCED TURNOVER (offensive foul) - not with a FGA - and a personal foul made. B1 is credited with a FORCED STEAL (charge drawn) and a personal foul received.

The official action: it will be signaled as a "team control foul".

case b ) Charge A1 with a FGA and a personal foul made. B1 is credited with a personal foul received.
The official action: will not indicate team control.

2.- A field goal is unintentionally scored for the opponent team, after last being touched by a defensive player.

case a ) If the touch by the defensive team was an attempt to block a shot and did not  alter its flight to a noticeable degree, then such touching shall be dismissed. If the offensive player that shot the ball is credited with the score, no blocked shot can be awarded.

case b ) If the touch by the defensive team followed a shot that had unmistakably missed and the defensive team did not gain control: a FGA and FGM is credited to the captain of the offensive team.

From Another Point of View:

The Hot Hand in Basketball: Fallacy or Adaptive Thinking?
by Bruce D. Burns

Excerpt from the article which complete version may be read here.

"In Basketball, players believe that they should "feed the hot hand," by giving the ball to a player more often if that player has hit a number of shots in a row. However, Gilovich, Vallone & Tversky (1985) analyzed Basketball players' successive shots and showed that they are independent events.

Thus the hot hand seems to be a fallacy. Taking the correctness of their result as a starting point, I suggest that if one looks at the hot hand phenomena from Gigerenzer & Todd's (1999) adaptive thinking point of view, then the relevant question to ask is does belief in the hot hand lead to more scoring by a Basketball team ?

By simulation I show that the answer to this question is yes, essentially because streaks are predictive of a player's shooting percentage. Thus belief in the hot hand may be an effective, fast and frugal heuristic for deciding how to allocate shots between members of a team.

The Hot Hand as Fallacy: Gilovich, Vallone and Tversky (1985) defined the "hot hand" in Basketball as the belief that during a particular period a player's performance is significantly better than expected on the basis of a player's overall record.

Gilovich et al. found that 91% of fans agreed that a player has "a better chance of making a shot after having just made his last two or three shots" and 68% said the same for free throws; 84% of fans believed that "it was important to pass the ball to someone who has just made several (two, three, or four) shots in a row."

Numerical estimates reflected the same belief in streak shooting, and most players on a professional team endorsed the same beliefs. Thus belief in the hot hand appears to be widespread, and Gilovich et al. suggest that may it affect the selection of which player is given the chance to take the next shot in a game.

This implication is captured by a phrase heard in Basketball commentary: "feed the hot hand."

To test if the phenomena described by the hot hand actually exist, Gilovich et al. (1985) analyzed a professional Basketball team's shooting over a season in order to see if streaks occur more often than expected by chance. They found that for each individual player, the proportion of shots hit was unrelated to how many previous shots in a row he had either hit or missed.

Analysis also showed that the number of runs of hits or misses for each player was not significantly different from the expected number of runs calculated from a player's overall shooting percentage and assuming that all shots were independent of each other. The same independence was found for free-throws, as the probability of hitting a free-throw was the same after a hit as after a miss for a group of professional players.

A controlled study of college players found the same independence between shots and found that observers could not predict which shots would be hit or missed. Thus the hot hand phenomenon appears to be a fallacy.

Why do fans and players believe in the hot hand if the empirical evidence shows that successive shots are independent ?

Gilovich et al. (1985) suggest that the persistence may be due to memory biases ( streaks are more memorable ) and misperception of chance, such as belief that small as well as large sequences are representative of their generating process . "

One reason for the wide interest in Gilovich et al.'s result may be the implications it appears to have for behavior. As Gilovich et al. (p. 313) state "...the belief in the 'hot hand' is not just erroneous, it could also be costly." This is because it may affect the way shots are allocated between members of a team. However, I will argue in this paper that this implication does not necessarily follow from their analysis, rather belief in the hot hand may actually be adaptive."      Read More...

From the eBA System Clinic discussions:

"In order to measure how strictly correctly a player or team is shooting we need statistics, and if possible a creative analysis of those basketball statistics.

Statisticians most often use the field goal percentage ( FG% ) to do it, but the added bonus of the three-point shot, for instance, isn't reflected in field goal percentage, and the ability to get to the free-throw line (where the points come much easier) is ignored as well.

"Points per Shot Attempt" (PSA): It's a stat designed to reflect the basics of good shooting: getting the greatest number of points from the fewest number of attempts.
Points per shot attempt is simply points divided by shot attempts . Figuring shot attempts is like this: Add field goal attempts plus "Up to the Line" (for 2 or 3 free-throws). In case of analysis of another team and if you can't know how many times the player or the team reached the line, use (0.4 * FTA) instead.

PSA = Points / (Up to the Line + FGA)

Last year NBA league PSA average was 1.039 points per shot attempt, so by averaging, by example, 1.133 points per attempt, an average team gains a full point with every ten shots.

PSA is just as handy for rating individual players as it is for teams. Occasionally a player will break into the top ten who shoots nothing but dunks, but mostly it's the long shooters who are at the top of an individual PSA list.........."

"An individual floor percentage could be a way for not only evaluate the offensive efficiency of players, but also to calculate the points created by each player.
"Individual Floor Percentage"= scoring possessions by a player divided by his total possessions.
"Player's Scoring Possessions"= field goals that weren't assisted on
+ a not specified percentage of his field goals that were assisted on
+ a not specified percentage of his assists
+ free throw made that represent a team scoring possession.

"Player's Total Possessions"= all his scoring possessions
+ his missed field goals

+ free throws that weren't rebounded by his team
+ turnovers.
The question to go on with this topic resides in the value of that "not specified percentage" in each field......"

"If a foul is committed on the shot, (made or missed) does the shot attempt get averaged into your field goal percentage?

Two Situations in your question:

1.- If a foul is committed on a shot and the shot is made: the shot attempt GET averaged in the field goal percentage as a "Field Goal Made" and the possession is ended and counted. We have a Foul Made and a Foul Received, too.

2.- If a foul is committed on a shot and the shot is missed: the shot attempt DOES NOT GET averaged in the field goal percentage, from the moment the player receives two or three free-throws from the line and the possession is not ended. For the possessions count in this situation: if the last free-throw of a serial ( of 2 or 3 ) is made the possession end with a "Up to the Line Made" for shooter's team ( see Global Basketball Directory for terminology; and see the example at the pages uploaded at the eBA System ).

If the last free-throw of a serial ( of 2 or 3 ) is missed, the possession end with a Defensive Rebound. An Offensive Rebound gives, you know, a second chance option. Foul Made and Foul received are counted, too."

"In the area of "field goal percentage" in order to prove fit for a rate statistic, the following minimums are required in the NBA.com (external link):

1947-1951= 200 field goals
1952-1955= 210 field goals
1956-1959= 230 field goals
1960=          190 field goals
1961-1962= 200 field goals
1963-1964= 210 field goals
1965=          220 field goals
1966=          210 field goals
1967-1968= 220 field goals
1969=          230 field goals
1970=            70 games or 700 field goal attempts
1971-1972= 700 field goal attempts
1973-1974= 560 field goal attempts
1975-1998= 300 field goals
1999=          183 field goals
2000-......=   300 field goals
Career=       2000 field goals"

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Created by azarober. Last Modification: Thursday 22 of March, 2012 13:20:12 UTC by azarober. (Version 4)

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